Finding Aid to the Papers of Woodruff T. Sullivan, 1946-2009
Click here for a listing of the 255 radio astronomers interviewed by Sullivan (plus the 52 individuals he was unable to interview) with links to more detailed information.
Short description of collection: Woodruff T. Sullivan III’s book, Cosmic Noise: A History of Early Radio Astronomy, was published in 2009 by Cambridge University Press. Sullivan's book covers the history of radio astronomy from its beginning in 1933 through 1953, and represents 30 years of intensive research by him. In 2010 Sullivan donated to the NRAO Archives the 188 audio tapes and related paperwork for the extensive set of interviews he conducted between 1971 and 1988 with 255 radio astronomers around the world. Some were interviewed more than once. In Appendix B to his book, Sullivan writes, "The goal of the interview project was to talk to everyone who had published at least one article in the field of radio astronomy before 1960.... I wanted to talk not just to the 'generals,' but also to the foot soldiers, the 'average' early radio astronomers.... Over the period 1971-88 (but mostly 1973-81) I interviewed a total of 255 persons."
This collection includes the original audiotapes, digitized versions of all tapes, as well as Sullivan's extensive files about the people he interviewed, about 45 people he did not interview, and about radio astronomy institutions and programs. Additional materials include those related to Sullivan's other publications, subject files, reprints, photographs, and books and bibliographies on radio astronomy history.
Biography: Woodruff Turner Sullivan III was born in 1944, received his B.S. in Physics from Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1966, and his Ph.D. in Astronomy with a minor in Physics from University of Maryland in 1971. Following a post-doctoral fellowship at Kapteyn Laboratory, Groningen University, The Netherlands, he joined the faculty of University of Washington in 1973, where he is now a Professor of Astronomy, an Adjunct Professor of History, and one of the leaders of the Astrobiology Program. He has held visiting positions at the Universities of Cambridge, Cornell, Groningen, and Paris
At the University of Washington, he has built and maintained an undergraduate Student Radio Telescope, developed the topic of "life in the cosmos" in the astronomy curriculum, developed and regularly taught "History of Physics and Astronomy, 1800-1940," and co-founded an innovative graduate program in Astrobiology in which six departments now participate.
Sullivan's astronomy research focused primarily on the interstellar medium of our Galaxy and the properties of other spiral galaxies. His work in the history of science has included the early development of radio astronomy, and his current long-term historical project is a biography of William Herschel. His contributions to many aspects of the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) led him to astrobiology, the study of life on Earth in a cosmic context and the search for extraterrestrial life.
In astronomy-related fields, he has designed a dozen public sundials in the Puget Sound region, as well as the first extraterrestrial sundial, part of NASA's Rovers that landed on Mars in 2004. He was the first to produce an "Earth at Night" image showing the effects of humankind’s activities at night on our planet, in particular urban light pollution.
He has published 90 scientific articles and five books:
Sullivan is a member of the International Astronomical Union, the International Scientific Radio Union, the American Astronomical Society, and the History of Science Society. He served on the NASA Science Working Group, and the NASA Investigators Working Group on Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence. He has been President of the History Committee of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, the American Astronomical Society Historical Astronomy Division, and International Astronomical Union Commission 50 (Light Pollution and Radio Interference).
In recognition of his research, writing, teaching, and leadership in the history of astronomy community, Sullivan received the 2012 LeRoy E. Doggett Prize from the Historical Astronomy Division of the American Astronomical Society.
[Biographical note written by Ellen Bouton, based on information provided by Sullivan.]
Accession history: The 188 audio tapes were donated to the NRAO Archives in August 2010, and related working files in May 2011 and October 2012. Additional materials, including materials related to Sullivan's other publications, subject files, photographs, books on radio astronomy history, bibliographies, and an extensive collection of published radio astronomy articles were received in September 2018.
Publication rights: Copyright for his material has been assigned by Sullivan to the NRAO/AUI Archives. All requests for permission to publish or quote from manuscripts must be submitted in writing to the Archivist. Note that much of the material in the collection was gathered from a wide variety of sources, including other institutions and archives, for which neither Sullivan nor the NRAO Archives holds publication rights. Additionally, neither Sullivan nor the Archives hold publication rights to the substantial quantity of published books, bibliographies, and articles.
Use policy for interviews: Sullivan has signed a release as interviewer. We have made extensive efforts to obtain release forms from interviewees or their heirs/next of kin allowing us to open the interviews to researchers and to post them on the Web. In cases where we have been unable to find anyone to give permission, we have allowed access to the interview and posted the transcript with the goal of providing access to the material. For interviews without releases we are unable to grant permission to cite or publish. We would be grateful to anyone who is able to provide contact information allowing us to obtain release forms for the interviewees or their heirs/next of kin listed on this page.
Preferred citation: For material from interviews: National Radio Astronomy Observatory/Associated Universities, Inc. Archives, Papers of Woodruff T. Sullivan III, Sullivan interview of [person, date]; after the initial citation, abbreviations may be used: NRAO/AUI Archives, Sullivan Papers, Sullivan interview of [person, date]. For materials other than interviews: National Radio Astronomy Observatory/Associated Universities, Inc. Archives, Papers of Woodruff T. Sullivan III, <series/unit/subunit/box #>; after the initial citation, abbreviations may be used: NRAO/AUI Archives, Sullivan Papers, <series/unit/subunit/box #>.
Processing notes: Initial inventory of the tapes was done in 2010 by Ellen N. Bouton. Digitization of the 188 audio tapes, including interviews of 255 20th century radio astronomers, as well as audio tapes of lectures and meetings, was done by Sierra Smith in summer 2011; digitization was funded by the Herbert C. Pollack Award received by Ellen Bouton from the Dudley Observatory, with additional funding from NRAO. Sullivan numbered his tapes sequentially through 173; during the digitization process additional unnumbered tapes of meetings and lectures were assigned sequential numbers 174-188.
In 2011, letters requesting permission to make their interviews available to researchers (including Web publication of the transcripts) were sent to all interviewees or next-of-kin for whom we could find addresses; we have continued to send letters as we have found contact information for additional interviewees. A prioritized list for transcribing interviews to post to the Web was developed by Kenneth I. Kellermann, W. Miller Goss, and Ellen N. Bouton. Criteria included the interviewee's contributions to the field of radio astronomy, whether the interviewee had been an NRAO staff member, whether the Archives received a researcher request for a specific interview, and whether we had received a signed permission form for the interview.
Transcription from the audio of 55 interviews with 44 radio astronomers was done by Sierra Smith in 2012, and a grant from the American Institute of Physics, Center for the History of Physics funded Web publication of those interviews between November 2012 and April 2013. Some additional transcriptions by either Sierra Smith or Ellen Bouton have been made and posted to the Web since 2013, and transcription work continues as time allows. Sullivan's files also included transcription typescripts done in the late 1970s of approximately 50 interviews. Efforts to scan and OCR the typescripts produced unsatisfactory results, so work is ongoing to retype to digitize these transcripts for posting on the Web.
For a small number of interviews, including those with Soviet astronomers done during Sullivan's 1980 trip to the Soviet Union, Sullivan did not record the sessions, but only took notes. The notes are available to researchers but have not been posted on the Web.
After consultation with staff at the Niels Bohr Library and Archives at the American Institute of Physics, Center for the History of Physics, we have begun posting with a "take-down" notice transcripts for which, despite multiple efforts, we have been unable to find anyone to sign a permission form.
As of September 2018, 92 interviews with 77 of the 255 interviewees have been transcribed and posted on the Web.
Arrangement, description, indexing, foldering and boxing of paper material received through 2012 began in summer 2011 and was completed by early 2013, with the processing done by Sierra Smith and Ellen Bouton. Processing of material received in September 2018 was completed in November 2018 by Heather Cole. During the processing, photocopies were made to replace thermofax sheets and newspaper clippings, fasteners were removed, and materials were removed from binders of various types.
Scope and Contents of Collection
Administrative Files Series: This comprises correspondence and notes from Sullivan regarding the shipping and organization of his collection. Included is an explanation of the organization of his subject files and index card catalog. Size: 0.25 linear feet.
Working Files Series: This series contains the 188 audio tapes made by Sullivan during 30 years of research for his book, Cosmic Noise: A History of Early Radio Astronomy (Cambridge University Press, 2009). The tapes have all been digitized. Tapes 1-173 are interviews with 255 radio astronomers; tapes 174-188 are recordings of 16 conferences or individual lectures. The interviews were conducted between 1971 and 1988, and the conferences were held between 1960 and 1988. In addition, there is a recording of a 1946 Mutual Broadcasting System radio broadcast about Project Diana. One box contains Sullivan's interview summary sheets, a chronological tape log, and general notes on transcripts and interviews.
Photographs Series: Photographs (prints and negatives) relating to the history of radio astronomy in the US, Australia, Canada, the United Kingdom, France and Holland, collected by Sullivan. Includes line drawings, photocopies of published photographs and identification notes by Sullivan. Also includes a few digital photos of Sullivan himself. Most photographs have captions on the back by Sullivan or others. One folder comprises slide portraits of many of the individuals interviewed by Sullivan for his book. The slide portraits have been digitized; contact the archivist for information and access. The original photographic prints and drawings for Cosmic Noise are filed in Sullivan Publications Series, Cosmic Noise Unit. Photographs relating to radio astronomy in the USSR are located in the Working Files Series, Institution Unit. Click here for a selection of digitized photos. Size: 2.25 linear feet.
Miscellany Series: References and odd items of interest relating to the history of radio astronomy. Artifacts comprise: a book of matches from Jodrell Bank (1970); a metal pin and cloth badge for the RATAN-600 radio telescope in the USSR (1980); and an empty can of Reber Butter Beans. Size: 0.5 linear feet plus one 6x6” box of artifacts.